LOS VILLANOS DEL ALZHEIMER/ ALZHEIMER´S VILLAINS

Illustration, Medicine

Teoría de la cascada amiloide.png

[ENGLISH BELOW]

La EA es la causa más frecuente de demencia, y se produce como consecuencia de una neurodegeneración cortical en la que participan dos malos de la película:

  • La placa amiloide, originada tras la agregación de monómeros de 42 aminoácidos de proteína beta amiloide en la membrana de las neuronas, que es el lado oscuro de la proteína alfa amiloide.
  • El ovillo neurofibrilar, se forma por culpa de la hiperfosforilación de la proteína TAU, que altera la estructura de los microtúbulos, ya que en condiciones normales esta proteína se encarga de estabilizarlos.

Estos villanos traman un plan estratégico en el mapamundi cerebral y van a depositarse en tierras del hipocampo, la amígdala, la circunvolución parahipocampal, el lóbulo temporal, el frontal y el límbico, interrumpiendo la comunicación neuronal.

PL recortada.png

El paso de ambos al fluido intersticial permite encontrar sus huellas en LCR: es la llamada Firma biológica de la EA, que incluye un descenso de Aβ42 y elevación de Tau y Tau fosforilada. Manejaremos el índice Tau/AB42, que en la  Enfermedad de Alzheimer estará elevado.

  • Este índice es útil en estadío preclínico porque los villanos están haciendo su trabajo incluso 15 años antes de la aparición de deterioro cognitivo.
  • Permite predecir deterioro cognitivo en el futuro del paciente.

El problema es la necesidad de hacer una PL; aunque tiene riesgos mínimos muchos de los pacientes y las familias muestran reparos.


AD is the main cause of dementia, and occurs as a result of a cortical neurodegeneration planed by two villains:

  • The amyloid plaque, originated after the aggregation of monomers of 42 amino acids of amyloid- beta peptid in the membrane of the neurons, which is the dark side of the alpha-amyloid peptid.
  • The neurofibrillary tangle is composed after the TAU protein hyperphosphorylation, which alters the structure of microtubules, as in normal conditions this protein stabilizes them.

These villains plot a strategic plan in the cerebral world map and they camp in lands of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus, the temporal lobe, the frontal and the limbic cortex, interfering neuronal communication.

The passage of both to the interstitial fluid allows us to find their tracks in CSF: this is called Biological signature of AD, which includes a descent of Aβ42 and elevation of Tau and phosphorylated Tau. We will manage the Tau / AB42 index, which in Alzheimer’s disease will be elevated.

This index is useful in preclinical stage because the villains are doing their work even 15 years before the appearance of cognitive deterioration. Also, allows the prediction of cognitive deterioration in the future of a patient.

The problem is the need to make a PL; although there are minimal risks, many of the patients and families show some reservations.

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Angoulême´17, cité de la BD

Comic, Travelling

Angoulême, international city of comics (as they call them in French, “Bande desinée, BD”), is a place where the truth lives with the  imaginary; the walls are opened pages for the traveller who becomes reader of an onomatopoeic street library.

Marché

Inside the “Halles” Market

There are almost 26 murals all around the city painted by famous BD´s artists such as Zep, Morris, Margerin…that celebrate the beauty of the ninth art and create a special artistic atmosphere.

Réalité sortie de secours

Reality, emergency exit//Réalité, sortie de secours (my favourite one).

Once a year, Angoulême celebrates an International Comics Festival, the “Festival International de la Bande Dessinée“, where artists and authors of the genre meet and create workshops for the general public. Allthough is not available for visitors the whole year, they have the opportuniy to visit the International Comic Museum, where they can follow comics´history from its beginnings to the present.

Anyway, a city that inspires you to draw some sketch at the end of your visit, so don´t forget your markers 😉

Sketching

World Merit 360

Illustration

I had the chance to receive a call from my adventuress friend Marina Melero and been invited to draw some quick illustrations for her talk at the #Merit360 conference last 26th August in Liverpool. She took part of this projet last year as an Action Plan Facilitator of the Quality Education Team, and this year she has inspired her audience with the top 5 lessons she learned on her journey, headed by the advice that Neale Godfrey gave to them: “Build the plane as you fly” (video 33´). It was during her time with World Merit when  the idea of Lairn emerged, a projet which aim is to provide access to quality education by radio to children in Nepal.

Thanks Marina for the opportunity. Thanks Marta for the idea of the paper plane. How wonderful is to work hand in hand with friends 🙂

Frida Kahlo

Illustration, Women
Frida Kahlo fondo capas

Frida Kahlo

Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo was born in Coyocrán (México) in 1907, althought she considered 1910 her year of birth, when the Mexican Revolution started. She was the third daughter of a Spanish-Mexican mother (Matilde) and a Hungarian-German father (Guillermo). Her name came from the German language, Friede which means “peace”.

When she was 7 years old, she contracted poliomyelitis, loosing the strenght of her right leg as a consequence. Children started to call her “Frida sticky leg” at the school, but thanks to her strong personality she earned boys´respect. At 1922, she joined the University Preparatory School of Ciudad de México, becoming one of the 35 women  over 2000 students. She was determined to become a Doctor.

Frida expended her best years at the Preparatory School, taking part of the revolutionary team “Cachuchas”, commanded by Frida´s first love, Alejandro Gómez Arias.

Unfortunately, a terrible accident broke her futur dreams; while going back home by bus a tram mowed down the automobile and Frida was seriously injured after a metal stick passed trought her belly, from her vagina until her back, hurting some internal organs, vertebrae and the pelvic bone.

During her convalescence period she expended many time reading Marx and Engels texts, inspired by her friend Germán del Campo, a convinced communist. After her recovery, she moved on his social circle, meeting figures as the photographer and actress Tina Modotti. She joined the Communist Youth Party in 1928. After she realized that Diego Rivera was the secretary of the Mexican Communist Party, decided to become a painter to cover all the medical expenses that her family have had after the accident, she met Diego and showed her works, inviting him to Coyocrán to discover the rest of her paintings. Diego encouraged her to keep on painting, and visited her house more and more often…until they got married the summer of the 29.

During the following years it began the american period of the mariage, due to Rivera´s job oportunities while giving up his position on the Communist Party, first in San Francisco and then in New York. They end returning to Coyoacán after the disappointment of the Rockefeller Center; the order was cancelled after Diego added a portrait of Lenin in the painting.

In 1934 Frida and Rivera separated after she discovered the relationship between her sister Cristina and his husband. She made her mind up to travelling alone to New York, profiting her autonomy, where she had a relationship with the japanease sculptor Isamu Noguchi. She started to be known as an artist, more than Diego Rivera´s wife.

When coming back to Coyoacán, Frida got involved again into the Party after the Spanish Civil War broke out, organizing the support. Then in 1937, as a service to the Communist Party, she had to take Leon Trotsky and his wife in her natal house.

The period concerning 1938-39 was the most productive of her work, being invited to show her paintings in New York and then in Paris, after André Breton knew her work while visiting Trotsky in Mexico. During her stay in Paris she met artist as Picasso, Kandinsky, Miró…

The return to Mexico was quite distressing for Frida as she finally got divorced with Diego, besides Trotsky was murdered by a stalinist group and everyone in his circle, including Frida had to submit an interrogation as suspicious of the crime. When everything ended up, she fell into a deep depression and became ill. Her health improvement included giving up smoking, stopping with the alcohol and beginig again with Diego. They got married again in 1940.

Frida dedicated her last years to teach art in La Esmeralda Arts School until her health allowed her, as she underwent a lot of interventions on her back the last years. It came a time when the students decided to move to her house in order to receive their lessons as Frida was so fragile; this group of students was known as “The Fridos”.

Frida Kahlo died the 13th July 1954 in Coyoacán.


Bibliography:

  • Sébastien Perez y Benjamin Lacombe. Frida. Ed. Edelvives, 1ª Edición 2016.
  • Vanna CERCENÀ. Frida Kahlo. Ed. Laberinto, 1ª Edición 2007.
  • Oficial website: http://www.fkahlo.com/#